1. See, for example, Meyer Schapiro's important consideration of the semiological function of the frame in, "On Some Problems in the Semiotics of the Visual Arts: Field and Vehicle in Image-Signs," in M. Shapiro, Theory and Philosophy of Art: Style, Artist and Society. Selected Papers, New York: George Braziller, 1994, pp. 1-32.
2. As Paul Ricoeur suggests is possible. For a discussion, see W.J.T. Mitchell, ed., On Narrative, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1981, p. viii.
3. Friedberg's son named the painting based on a perceived affinity with the movie. She has never seen Lynch's film.